HEART FAILURE MANAGEMENT

Once heart failure has been diagnosed, the goal of treatment is to improve symptoms and signs and avoid or reduce hospital admissions. In the majority of patients with symptomatic heart failure, a diuretic is used first-line to reduce fluid overload. An ACE inhibitor and beta-blocker are then added, followed by spironolactone if the patient is still symptomatic. An angiotensin-II receptor blocker, digoxin and anticoagulants can be added as appropriate. Surgical interventions may be considered for some patients.
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